REPULSION AND ELECTROMAGNETIC CIRCUMDUCTION IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM
Not in Accord with the Theory of Gravitation
Between Two Atoms. - Inertia. - Attraction of Bodies Toward the
Earth. - The Time of Descent and of Ascent of a Pendulum. - The
Effect of Charge on the Weight of a Body
Repulsion, and Electromagnetic Circumduction in the Solar System
Anomaly of Mercury and Other Phenomena Explained
FUNDAMENTAL theory of this paper is: Gravitation is an electromagnetic
phenomenon. There is no primary motion inherent in planets and satellites.
Electric attraction, repulsion, and electromagnetic circumduction(1)
govern their movements. The moon does not fall, attracted
to the earth from an assumed inertial motion along a straight line,
nor is the phenomenon of objects falling in the terrestrial atmosphere
comparable with the falling effect in the movement of the
moon, a conjecture which is the basic element of the Newtonian theory
several important facts discovered in the study of cosmic upheavals,
which are not illuminated here and only enumerated at the end of this
paper, and which are discussed at length in a work of research entitled
Worlds In Collision now being prepared for publication, the
following facts are incompatible with the theory of gravitation:
ingredients of the airoxygen, nitrogen, argon and other gasesthough
not in a compound but in a mixture, are found in equal proportions
at various levels of the atmosphere despite great differences in
specific weights. The explanation accepted in science is this: Swift
winds keep the gases thoroughly mixed, so that except for water-vapor
the composition of the atmosphere is the same throughout the troposphere
to a high degree of approximation. (2)
This explanation cannot be true. If it were true, then the moment
the wind subsides, the nitrogen should stream upward, and the oxygen
should drop, preceded by the argon. If winds are caused by a difference
in weight between warm and cold air, the difference in weight between
heavy gases high in the atmosphere and light gases at the lower
levels should create storms, which would subside only after they
had carried each gas to its natural place in accordance with its
gravity or specific weight. But nothing of the kind happens.
some aviators expressed the belief that pockets of noxious
gas are in the air, the scientists replied:
are no pockets of noxious gas. No single gas, and
no other likely mixture of gases, has, at ordinary temperatures
and pressures, the same density as atmospheric air. Therefore,
a pocket of foreign gas in that atmosphere would almost certainly
either bob up like a balloon, or sink like a stone in water.
then, do not the atmospheric gases separate and stay apart in accordance
with the specific gravities?
though heavier than oxygen, is absent in the lower layers of the
atmosphere, is present in the upper layers, and is not subject to
the mixing effect of the wind. The presence of ozone
high in the atmosphere suggests that oxygen must be still higher:
As oxygen is less dense than ozone, it will tend to rise to
even greater heights. (4) Nowhere
is it asked why ozone does not descend of its own weight or at least
why it is not mixed by the wind with other gases.
though eight hundred times heavier than air, is held in droplets,
by the millions of tons, miles above the ground. Clouds and mist
are composed of droplets which defy gravitation.
if perfect elasticity is a quality of the molecules of all gases,
the motion of the molecules, if effected by a mechanical cause,
must subside because of the gravitational attraction between the
particles and also because of the gravitational pull of the earth.
There should also be a loss of momentum as the result of the transformation
of a part of the energy of motion into vibration of molecules hit
in the collisions.(5)
But since the molecules of a gas at a constant temperature (or in
a perfect insulator) do not stop moving, it is obvious that a force
generated in collisions drives them. The molecules of gases try
to escape one another. Repulsion between the particles of gases
and vapors counteracts the attraction.
weight of the atmosphere is constantly changing as the changing
barometric pressure indicates. Low pressure areas are not necessarily
encircled by high pressure belts. The semidiurnal changes in barometric
pressure are not explainable by the mechanistic principles of gravitation
and the heat effect of solar radiation. The cause of these variations
has been known now for two and a half centuries, that there are
more or less daily variations in the height of the barometer,
culminating in two maxima and two minima during the course of
24 hours. Since Dr. Beals discovery (1664-65), the same
observation has been made and puzzled over at every station at
which pressure records were kept and studied, but without success
in finding for it the complete physical explanation. In speaking
of the diurnal and semidiurnal variations of the barometer, Lord
Rayleigh says: The relative magnitude of the latter [semidiurnal
variations], as observed at most parts of the earths surface,
is still a mystery, all the attempted explanations being illusory.
maximum is at 10 a.m., the other at 10 p.m.; the two minima are
at 4 a.m. and 4 p.m. The heating effect of the sun can explain neither
the time when the maxima appear nor the time of the minima of these
semidiurnal variations. If the pressure becomes lower without the
air becoming lighter through a lateral expansion due to heat, this
must mean that the same mass of air gravitates with changing force
at different hours.
lowest pressure is near the equator, in the belt of the doldrums.
Yet the troposphere is highest at the equator, being on the average
about 18 km. high there; it is lower in the moderate latitudes,
and only 6 km. high above the ground at the poles.
pondering the shape of the atmospheric envelope of the earth, came
to the conclusion that the atmosphere, which rotates with the same
angular velocity as the earth and which behaves like a fluid, must
be lenticular in form; its polar and equatorial axes must be about
35,000 and 52,000 miles respectively; at the equator the atmosphere
must extend more than 21,000 miles above the ground. At these distances
from the ground the gravitational force of the earth is just equal
to the centrifugal force due to rotation.
the measurement of the pressure of the earths atmosphere,
measurement based also on the principles of gravitation, it has
been deduced that the atmosphere is but 17 (not 21,000) miles high.
of the flight of meteorites and of the polar auroras lead to the
conjecture that the atmosphere reaches to a height of 130 miles
(meteorites) or over 400 miles (polar auroras). Radio measurements
yield about 200 miles for the upper layer recognizable through this
method of investigation.
computations, both based on the principle of gravitation, differ
in the proportion of 17 and 21,000. Direct observations do not justify
either of the computed figures.
characterized by low pressure and by winds blowing toward their
centers, move counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise
in the southern hemisphere. This movement of air currents in cyclonic
vortices is generally explained as the effect of the earths
characterized by high pressure and by winds blowing from their centers
move clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in
the southern hemisphere. The movement of anticyclones has not been
explained and is regarded as enigmatic.
and anticyclones are considered a problem of fluidal motion with
highest or lowest pressure in the center. As the movement of anticyclones
cannot be explained by the mechanistic principles of gravitation
and rotation, it must be concluded that the rotation of cyclones
is also unexplained.
area of land in the northern hemisphere of the earth is to the area
of land in the southern hemisphere as three is to one. The mean
weight of the land is two and three-quarter times heavier than that
of water; assuming the depth of the seas in both hemispheres to
be equal, the northern hemisphere up to sea level is heavier than
the southern hemisphere, if judged by sea and land distribution;
the earth masses above sea level are additional heavy loads. But
this unequal distribution of masses does not affect the position
of the earth, as it does not place the northern hemisphere with
its face to the sun. A dead force like gravitation could
not keep the unequally loaded earth in equilibrium. Also, the seasonal
distribution of ice and snow, shifting in a distillation process
from one hemisphere to the other, should interfere with the equilibrium
of the earth, but fails to do so.
masses do not exert the gravitational pull expected by the theory
of gravitation. The influence of the largest mass on the earth,
the Himalaya, was carefully investigated with plumb line on the
Indian side. The plumb line is not deflected as calculated in advance.(7)
The attraction of the mountain-ground thus computed on the
theory of gravitation, is considerably greater than is necessary
to explain the anomalies observed. This singular conclusion, I confess,
at first surprised me very much. (G. B. Airy.(8))
Out of this embarrassment grew the idea of isostasy. This hypothesis
explains the lack of gravitational pull by the mountains in the
following way. The interior of the globe is supposed to be fluid,
and the crust is supposed to float on it. The inner fluid or magma
is heavier or denser, the crust is lighter. Where there is a mountainous
elevation, there must also be a protuberance beneath the mountains,
this immersed protuberance being of lesser mass than the magma of
equal volume. The way seismic waves travel, and computations of
the elasticity of the interior of the earth, force the conclusion
that the earth must be as rigid as steel; but if the earth is solid
for only 2000 miles from the surface, the crust must be more rigid
than steel. These conclusions are not reconcilable with the principle
of isostasy, which presupposes a fluid magma less than 60 miles
below the surface of the earth. There remains a contradiction
between isostasy and geophysical data. (9)
the oceans, the gravitational pull is greater than over the continents,
though according to the theory of gravitation the reverse should
be true; the hypothesis of isostasy also is unable to explain this
The gravitational pull drops at the coast line of the continents.
Furthermore, the distribution of gravitation in the sea often has
the peculiarity of being stronger where the water is deeper. In
the whole Gulf and Caribbean region the generalization seems to
hold that the deeper the water, the more strongly positive the anomalies.
far as observations could establish, the sea tides do not influence
the plumb line, which is contrary to what is expected. Observations
on reservoirs of water, where the mass of water could be increased
and decreased, gave none of the results anticipated on the basis
of the theory of gravitation.(12)
atmospheric pressure of the sun, instead of being 27.47 times greater
than the atmospheric pressure of the earth (as expected because
of the gravitational pull of the large solar mass), is much smaller:
the pressure there varies according to the layers of the atmosphere
from one-tenth to one-thousandth of the barometric pressure on the
the base of the reversing layer the pressure is 0.005 of the atmospheric
pressure at sea level on the earth;(14)
in the sunspots, the pressure drops to one ten-thousandth of the
pressure on the earth.
pressure of light is sometimes referred to as to explain the low
atmospheric pressure on the sun. At the surface of the sun, the
pressure of light must be 2.75 milligrams per square centimeter;
a cubic centimeter of one gram weight at the surface of the earth
would weigh 27.47 grams at the surface of the sun. Thus the attraction
by the solar mass is 10,000 times greater than the repulsion of
the solar light. Recourse is taken to the supposition that if the
pull and the pressure are calculated for very small masses, the
pressure exceeds the pull, one acting in proportion to the surface,
the other in proportion to the volume.(15)
But if this is so, why is the lowest pressure of the solar atmosphere
observed over the sunspots where the light pressure is least?
of its swift rotation, the gaseous sun should have the latitudinal
axis greater than the longitudinal, but it does not have it. The
sun is one million times larger than the earth, and its day is but
twenty-six times longer than the terrestrial day; the swiftness
of its rotation at its equator is over 125 km. per minute; at the
poles, the velocity approaches zero. Yet the solar disk is not oval
but round: the majority of observers even find a small excess in
the longitudinal axis of the sun.(16)
The planets act in the same manner as the rotation of the sun, imposing
a latitudinal pull on the luminary.
that acts in all directions equally leaves unexplained the spherical
shape of the sun. As we saw in the preceding section, the gases
of the solar atmosphere are not under a strong pressure, but under
a very weak one. Therefore, the computation, according to which
the ellipsoidity of the sun, that is lacking, should be slight,
is not correct either. Since the gases are under a very low gravitational
pressure, the centrifugal force of rotation must have formed quite
a flat sun.
the polar regions of the sun, streamers of the corona are observed,
which prolong still more the axial length of the sun.
planets and satellites were once molten masses, as cosmological
theories assume, they would not have been able to obtain a spherical
form, especially those which do not rotate, as Mercury or the moon
(with respect to its primary).
Harmonic Law of Kepler views the movements of the planets as depending
only on their distance from the sun. According to Newton, the masses
of the sun and the planets must also enter the formulas. The Newtonian
orbits differ from the Keplerian, found empirically. The Newtonian
formula has a sum of masses (instead of a product of masses), and
in view of the largeness of the sun, the Newtonian orbits are supposed
to not deviate substantially from the Keplerian.(17)
of planets due to their reciprocal action are pronounced in repulsion
as well as attraction. A perturbation displacing a planet or a satellite
by a few seconds of arc must direct it from its orbit. It is assumed
that the orbits of all planets and satellites did not change because
of perturbations. A regulating force emanating from the primary
appears to act. In the gravitational system there is no place left
for such regulating forces.
perturbating activity appears unstable in the major planets, Jupiter
and Saturn: Between the minimum of the year 1898-99 and the maximum
of the 1916-17 there was found an 18 percent difference.(18)
As these planets did not increase in mass in the meantime, this
change is not understandable from the point of view of the theory
of gravitation, which includes the principle of the immutable gravitational
pressure of light emanating from the sun should slowly change the
orbits of the satellites, pushing them more than the primaries,
and acting constantly, this pressure should have the effect of acceleration:
the pressure of light per unit of mass is greater in relation to
the satellites than in relation to their primaries. But this change
fails to materialize; a regulating force seems to overcome this
unequal light pressure on primaries and secondaries.
sun moves in space at a velocity of about twenty kilometers a second
(in relation to the nearby stars). This motion, according to Lodge,
must change the eccentricities of some of the planetary orbits to
an extent which far exceeds the observed values.(19)
motion of the perihelia of Mercury and Mars and of the nodes of
Venus differ from what is computed with the help of the Newtonian
law of gravitation. Einstein showed how his theory can account for
the anomaly of Mercury; however, the smaller irregularities in the
movements of Venus and Mars cannot be accounted for by Einsteins
for fluctuations in the lunar mean motion were calculated from the
records of lunar eclipses of many centuries and from modern observations.
These fluctuations were studied by S. Newcomb, who wrote: I
regard these fluctuations as the most enigmatic phenomenon presented
by the celestial motions, being so difficult to account for by the
action of any known causes, that we cannot but suspect them to arise
from some action in nature hitherto unknown. (20)
They are not explainable by the forces of gravitation which emanate
from the sun and the planets.
was found that the strength of radio reception was nearly
doubled with the passing of the moon from overhead to underneath
the observer ... It does not appear reasonable that the relatively
small gravitational tide in the earths atmosphere, which changes
the barometric pressure by less than half of one percent, could
account for a sufficient change in altitude of the ionized layer
to produce such marked changes in the intensity of reception.
lifting of the ionosphere generally results in better radio reception,
and the small tidal action by the moon when overhead should improve
reception a little, not impair it; in any event, the moon cannot
have a marked effect on the ionosphere without being itself a charged
body. But if the moon is charged, it cannot behave in its motion
as though the gravitational force alone acts between it and the
tails of the comets do not obey the principle of gravitation and
are repelled by the sun. There is beyond question some profound
secret and mystery of nature concerned in the phenomenon of their
tails ; enormous sweep which it (the tail) makes round the
sun in perihelion, in the manner of a straight and rigid rod, is
in defiance of the law of gravitation, nay, even of the recorded
laws of motion (J. Herschel).(22)
has puzzled astronomers since the time of Newton, is the fact
that while all other bodies in the sidereal universe, as far as
we are aware, obey the law of gravitation, comets tails
are clearly subject to some strong repulsive force, which drives
the matter composing them away from the sun with enormously high
velocities (W.H. Pickering)
change in the angular velocity of comets (especially of the comet
Encke) is not in accord with the theoretical computations based
on the theory of gravitation.(23)
after entering the terrestrial atmosphere at about 200 km. above
the ground, are violently displaced toward the east. These displacements
of the meteors are usually ascribed to winds blowing in the upper
The atmospheric pressure at a height of 45 km. is supposed to be
but a small fraction of one millimeter of mercury. (25)
On the other hand, the velocity with which the meteors approach
the earth is between 15 and 75 km. per second, on the average about
40 km. per second or over 140,000 km. per hour. If winds of 150
km. per hour velocity were permanently blowing at the height where
the meteors become visible, it would not be possible for such winds
of rarefied atmosphere to visibly deflect stones falling at the
rate of 140,000 km. per hour.
the earth, the meteorites suddenly slow down and turn aside, and
some are even repelled into space. A few meteors give the
appearance of penetrating into our atmosphere and then leaving it,
ricocheting as it were. (26)
earth is a huge magnet; it has electric currents in the ground and
is enveloped by a number of layers of electrified ionosphere. The
sun possesses an electric charge and magnetic poles; also the sunspots
are found to be powerful magnets. The ionosphere is permanently
charged by particles arriving from the sun; sunspots actively influence
terrestrial magnetism, ground currents, the ionospheres charge,
and auroras. As the principle of gravitation leaves no room for
the participation of other forces in the ordinary movements of the
celestial mechanism, these obvious and permanent influences of the
electromagnetic state of the sun on the magnetic field of the earth,
the ionosphere, the auroras, and the earth currents are not allowed
to have more than zero effect on the astronomical position of the
earth, and this for the sake of maintaining the integrity of the
and moon, comets, planets, satellites, and meteorites - all the
heavenly host - air and water, mountain massifs and sea tides, each
and all of them(27)
disobey the law of laws which is supposed to know no
* * *
empirical evidences of the fallacy of the law of gravitation four well
known difficulties of the gravitational theory can be added:
acts in no time. Laplace calculated that, in order to keep the solar
system together, the gravitational pull must propagate with a velocity
at least fifty million times greater than the velocity of light.
A physical agent requires time to cover distance. Gravitation defies
acts where it is not, or in abstentia, through no physical
agent. This is a defiance of space. Newton was aware of this difficulty
when he wrote in a letter to Bentley: That gravity should
be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one body can
act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation
of anything else, by and through which their action and force may
be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity
that I believe no man, who has in philosophical matters a competent
faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it. Leibnitz opposed
the theory of gravitation for this very reason.
force is unchangeable by any and all agents or by any medium through
which it passes, always propagating as the inverse square of the
distances. Gravitation is entirely independent of everything
that influences other natural phenomena (De Sitter(28)).
This is a defiance of the principles governing other energies.
particle in the universe must be under a tendency to be pulled apart
because of the infinite mass in the universe: it is pulled to all
sides by all the matter in space.
A few additional
remarks about the motion of bodies in the universe which bear upon the
theory of gravitation are added here:
notion of the tangential escape or inertia of the primary motion
of the planets and satellites, being adopted by all cosmogonical
theories of post-Newtonian days, led all of them into insurmountable
difficulties. The retrograde motion of some satellites is one of
principle of gravitation demands an ultimate balling of all matter
in the cosmos. This is not in harmony with spectral observations,
which suggest even an expanding universe
atom differs from the solar system by the fact that it is not gravitation
that makes the electrons go round the nucleus, but electricity.
(B. Russell). Different principles are supposed to govern the motion
of the planetary bodies in the macrocosm and microcosm.(29)
* * *
explained the principle underlying the motion of the planets and the
satellites by the example of a stone thrown horizontally from a mountain
with such force that gravitation bends its flight so that it revolves
around the earth, coming back to exactly the same place, once again
to repeat the course of its flight. But he admits It is not to
be conceived that mere mechanical causes could give birth to so many
regular motions, and invokes an act of Providence in providing
each satellite with a tangential push of a strength which, together
with the pull of the primary, creates an orbit. (General Scholium to
Book III of the Principia) The inertia of the tangential (instantaneous)
push has not exhausted itself in all the eons despite the tidal friction
between a satellite and its primary, or the sun pulling the satellite
away from the primary, or the resistance of matter (meteorites) in space,
though all these forces act permanently and therefore with acceleration.
* * *
gravitational theory is regarded as proved by the action of the tides.
But studying the tides, Newton came to the conclusion that the moon
has a mass equal to one fortieth of the earth. Modern calculations,
based on the theory of gravitation (but not on the action of the tides),
ascribe to the moon a mass equal to 1/81 of the earths mass.(30)
triumph of the theory of gravitation was the discovery of the planet
Neptune, the position of which was calculated simultaneously by Adams
and Leverrier from the perturbations experienced by Uranus. But in the
controversy which ensued concerning the priority in announcing the existence
of Neptune, it was stressed that neither of the two scholars was the
real discoverer, as both of them calculated very erroneously the distance
of Neptune from the orbit of Uranus.(31)
Yet, even if the computations were correct, there would be no proof
that gravitation and not another energy acts between Uranus and Neptune.
The gravitational pull decreases as the square of the distance. Electricity
and magnetism act in the same way. Newton was mistaken when he ascribed
to magnetism a decrease that follows the cube of the distance.(32)
his System of the World, Newton put before his readers Rules of
Reasoning in Philosophy. The First Rule is: We are to admit
no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient
to explain their appearances. Rule II is : Therefore, to
the same natural effects we must, as far as possible, assign the same
theoretical and experimental investigations will be necessary to build
a new theory in place of the now accepted theory of gravitation. For
the present we shall offer only general suggestions.
between two neutral atoms. Each atom is made up of positive
and negative electricity and, though neutral as a whole, may form
an electric dipole when subjected to an electric force. Thus, in
the theory presented here, this attraction is not due to inherent
gravitational properties of mass, but instead to the well
known electrical properties of attraction. Two dipoles arrange themselves
so that the attraction is stronger than their mutual repulsion.
or the passive property of matter. The equality of active
and passive, or gravitational and inertial mass was in Newtons
system a most remarkable accidental coincidence, something like
a miracle. Newton himself decidedly felt it as such (W. DeSitter).(33)
Einsteins explanation, inertia and gravitation are not two
different properties, but one and the same property viewed from
different points in space. According to his illustration, a man
in an elevator that is being continuously pulled up by a rope invisible
to the man will feel his feet pressed against the bottom of the
elevator and will think that he gravitates toward the floor. But
someone else observing the situation from the outside in space will
judge that there is a fact of inertia; the pulled elevator has to
overcome the inertia of the man standing on its floor. If the man
in the elevator lets an object fall from his hand, it will approach
the floor at an accelerated speed because the elevator is being
continuously pulled upward; to the observer on the outside it rises
this illustration Einstein tried to explain the equivalence of inertia
and gravitation. But it is impossible to adopt this explanation
for the gravitational effect of the globe: the observer from outside
cannot perceive the globe as moving simultaneously in all directions.
Einstein sees the difficulty and says: It is, for instance,
impossible to choose a body of reference such that, as judged from
it, the gravitational field of the earth (in its entirety) vanishes.
our explanation the active property is due to one kind of charge
in the atom - the attracting (attracted) charge; the passive property,
to the opposite charge, which repels (is repelled). Both exist in
equal quantities in a neutral atom; this explains the equality of
the gravitating and inertial properties of matter.
the charges must arrange themselves in such a manner that attraction
proceeds: the attracting force overcomes the repelling force because
the attracting poles of the dipoles are closer to one another than
the repelling poles; when the repelling poles are closer, the atoms
(or their combinations in molecules) repel each other, as is the
case with gases.
body attracts more strongly than a neutral body because of the presence
of free electrons; in dipoles the charges rearrange themselves only
a little, but free electrons can rearrange themselves much more.
of bodies toward the earth. The ionosphere is strongly charged
with respect to the neutral earth; a potential difference
of 100 volts per meter altitude exists near the ground, or a difference
in potentials which forces the current through the electric lamps.
Does any relation exist between the difference in voltage in the
lower atmosphere and the difference in weight (at the ceiling
of a room 3 meters high a kilogram weighs about one milligram less
than at the floor )?
the altitude a voltage difference per meter is not the same as near
the ground, but it accumulates to a high figure: Between a
point ten miles high and the surface of the earth there is an electrical
pressure difference of about a hundred and fifty thousand volts.
bodies consist of both positive and negative charges. Neutral atoms
form dipoles along the lines of force of the electric field with
poles turned toward the earth and the ionosphere. Is the fall of
objects due to their dipole attraction and to their
movement in an electrical field as dipoles? The proximity to the
ground gives its action preference over that of the ionosphere as
far as the attracting force is concerned, since the distance between
the opposite electric poles of the atomic dipole is much smaller
in comparison to its total distance from the ionosphere than from
the ground. This means, however, that when objects reach a certain
altitude, they would be attracted upward. Meteorites, repelled into
space, are apparently charged identically with the upper layer of
part of the theory (concerning falling bodies) requires experimentation
and exact calculation. It is probable that besides carrying a charge,
the ground turns all of its atoms as dipoles toward the ionosphere.(36)
contrast to electric and magnetic fields, the gravitational field
exhibits a most remarkable property, which is of fundamental importance
... Bodies which are moving under the sole influence of a gravitational
field receive an acceleration, which does not in the least depend
either on the material or the physical state of the body.
law is supposed to hold with great accuracy. The velocity of the
fall is generally explored with the help of a pendulum; it appears
to us that a charged object must fall with a different velocity
than a neutral object. This is generally denied. But the denial
is based on the observation that there is no difference in the number
of swings of a pendulum in a unit of time, in the case where a charged
or neutral bob is used. This method may produce inaccurate results.
In an accurate method, the falling time and the time of ascent
of the pendulum must be measured separately. In the case of
a charged body, the increase in the velocity of descent of the pendulum
may be accompanied by a decrease in the velocity of ascent, and
thus the number of swings in a unit of time would remain the same
for charged and non-charged bobs.
a charged body the attracting and the inertial properties are not
also that the weight of a body increases after it is charged. An
experiment made with a piece of hard rubber (ten grams), neutral
and again charged by rubbing, on a scale with a sensitivity of one-tenth
of a milligram, showed a change in weight of over ten milligrams.
This appears to be the result of an induced charge in the bottom
(ebony) of the balance (placed on a thick plate of glass). A grounded
wire held over the scale with the charged rubber raises the scale.
If gravitation is an electrical phenomenon, attraction
by induced electricity is not an entirely different phenomenon.
Nevertheless, this experiment cannot be regarded as conclusive for
the present problem.
the oil-drop experiment the action of the charges may be made equal
to the gravitational pull: One and the same action is
ascribed to two fundamentally different principles.
may provide the answer to the question of how much a charged drop
revolving around a pole of a magnet is influenced by the terrestrial
a metal container filled with gas fall (in a vacuum) with the same
velocity as a solid piece of metal?
repulsion, and electromagnetic circumduction act in the solar system.
Sun, planets, satellites, comets are charged bodies. As charged bodies
they are interdependent.
surface is charged negatively in relation to the charge of the earth,
as the spectral lines (with the dominant red line in the spectrum of
hydrogen) reveal. The sun carries a charge and rotates: it is an electromagnet.
of the sun are magnetic, and the filaments of hydrogen on the suns
surface arrange themselves as iron particles in a magnetic field.(38)
Besides the spots, the sun as a whole is a magnet. The form of
the corona and the motion of the prominences suggest that it is a magnet,
wrote G.E. Hale when he undertook to detect the Zeeman effect.(39)
The Zeeman effect proved to be most pronounced at 45° in both hemispheres
of the sun; Hale found the displacement of lines decreases to zero at
the equator and near the poles of rotation; and also that a first
approximate value for the vertical intensity of the suns general
field at the poles is 50 gausses. Thus, it was confirmed that
the sun is a magnet, but the magnetic field was found not to be strong.
is questioned here. The lines of the corona suggested the existence
of a magnetic field on the sun to the scholar who discovered it. But
the form of the corona suggests a powerful magnetic field.(40)
Visible coronal bands and streamers reach a distance equal to ten and
more diameters from the disc of the sunMercury is only forty solar
diameters from the sun and Earth 108 solar diameters. More recent investigation
by Stevens, who photographed the streamers from 25,000 feet, disclose
a globular corona more extensive than any known from ground photographs.
in filaments and vortices of the sun affect the ionosphere of the earth
and prove the existence of a powerful charge on the sun; rotating at
the speed of the solar rotation, a strong charge must produce a strong
investigation of the magnetic power of the field around the sun is here
suggested. It should be kept in mind that the observations have been
made from the solar magnetic field, in which the earth is embedded,
if our concept is correct. It is possible also that the strongest Zeeman
effect will show itself in latitudes higher than 45°. As is well known,
the angle of observation must be taken into consideration in observing
the Zeeman effect.
is a rotating charged body, and it creates a magnetic field. We assume
the solar charge to be large enough to produce a magnetic field with
lines of force reaching the orbit of Pluto. The charged planets move
at right angles to the suns magnetic lines of force and describe
the usual circular motion to which moving charged bodies are subjected
in a magnetic field. Satellites, in turn, revolve in smaller magnetic
fields produced by the rotation of the charged planets. The non-rotating
planets have no satellites, for they do not produce magnetic fields.
If there are rotating satellites, they may be able to revolve trabants
origin of the earths main magnetic field has so far defied all
attempts of solution. (41) The
cause of the earths magnetic field is in (1) the magnetic field
of the sun, and (2) the rotation of the charged earth around its axis.
that if the earth is a magnet because of the rotating charge on its
surface, the charge must be so great as to enter as a serious
factor in planetary perturbations, and therefore the theory was
dropped.(43) But this
is exactly what happens: the electromagnetic fields of the earth and
of other planets are the causes of the planetary perturbations.
constructed a theory according to which the members of the solar system
are charged bodies; electric attraction and repulsion, and electromagnetic
circumduction act in the system; the origin of the magnetic field around
the sun is in its chargethe sun is an electromagnet; planetary
motion is due to the electromagnetic force exerted on the planets by
the sun. The planets as charged bodies create magnetic fields by their
rotation. It follows that (a) gravity, depending on electrical charge,
varies with the charge, (b) the masses of the planets are inaccurately
calculated, (c) the positive and negative charges are manifested only
in relation to the charge of the earth.
the differences between the conception of celestial mechanism expounded
here and the theories of gravitation of Newton and Einstein is that
in our understanding the revolution of the moon is a process of a different
order from that of the falling of objects near the terrestrial ground.
The revolution of the moon is a phenomenon of circumduction of a charge
by a magnetic field and is not a fall combined with inertia; the primary
motion of planets and satellites along a straight line is a fallacious
notion. At the distance of the moon the electromagnetic field of the
earth causes circumduction while in the terrestrial atmosphere the electric
field between the earth and the ionosphere causes the movement of the
dipoles. Like the moon, the earth and other planets and satellites are
subject to electromagnetic circumduction.
gravitation is an electromagnetic phenomenon, in which the charges
in the atoms, the free charges, the magnetic fields of the sun and the
planets play their parts.
frame of this theory the following phenomena become explainable:
planets revolve in approximately one plane. They revolve in
a plane perpendicular to the lines of force of the suns magnetic
planets have a greater aggregate energy of motion than the sun.
The revolution of the planets did not originate in the angular velocity
of rotation of the sun; the magnetic field of the sun effected their
revolution. Also, the fact that one of the satellites of Mars revolves
with an angular speed greater than that of the rotation of this
planet is explained here by electromagnetic circumduction.
retrograde revolution of a number of satellites. It is due
either to retrograde rotation of the primary with inversed magnetic
poles or to a difference of charges. The fact that the retrograde
satellites of Jupiter and Saturn are the most remote from their
primaries poses the problem whether their remoteness from the primaries
and their relative closeness to the sun play a role in their being
of a presumably different charge than the other satellites of Jupiter
the case of Uranus, the retrograde revolution of its satellites
follows the retrograde rotation of the planet and its magnetic field.
(One of the magnetic poles of Uranus can be readily investigated
because it faces the ecliptic.)
rotation of the earth. The tidal theory fails to account for
the rotation of the planets. The position of the magnetic poles
of the earth at a distance of about 20 degrees from the geographical
poles may be related to the rotation of the earth. Once each day
the magnetic poles of the earth occupy the southernmost and the
northernmost positions in the lines of the magnetic field of the
among the members of the solar system are actions of attraction
as well as of repulsion and depend on the charges of the planets
and satellites and their magnetic properties. The fact that after
perturbations, the planets resume their normal courses is due to
the regulating action of the suns magnetic field. Similarly,
the satellites are regulated in their motion by the electromagnetic
fields of the primaries.
anomalies in the motion of Mercury and other planets. The velocities
of revolution of the planets depend on their charges. A strongly
charged body is carried across the lines of the magnetic field more
swiftly than a weakly charged body. If the charge of a planet increases,
the velocity of revolution of such a planet must increase too. Positive
as well as negative charges arrive from the sun in an uninterrupted
planet Mercury moves faster and faster. This must be the result
of an increasing charge of the planet. Also, the anomalies
in the motion of other inner planets may be attributed to a changing
charge; other irregularities in the motion of the planets can be
attributed to the fact that the electrical charge of the sun is
not equally distributed on the solar surface.
deflection of a ray of light passing close to the sun. Before
attributing the deflection to the gravitational field of the sun,
the influence of the magnetic field of the sun on the rotation of
light should be calculated. (The influence of the moon on a ray
of light by creating a ripple in the atmosphere during a solar eclipse
must not be overlooked; an investigation of the trajectory of a
stellar ray passing close to the moon in a lunar eclipse is suggested
repulsion of a comets tail by the sun. The head of a
comet and its tail are charged under a great potential difference,
accounting for the manifest repulsion of the tail and attraction
of the head. The neck of the comet is probably composed of positive
and negative elements in equal proportion, thus forming a neutral
zone between the head and the tail. Under the influence of the temperature
in space the charges change and the comet returns on its orbit.
displacement of the meteorites in the higher atmosphere. It
is caused not by the winds, but by the electromagnetic effect of
the ionosphere. The light of the meteorites is caused by electric
discharges. Consequently, the passage of meteorites disturbs radio
influence of the moon on radio reception. The charged moon
on its hourly stations exerts an attracting-repelling action on
the electrified layers of the atmosphere (ionosphere) to a greater
degree than on the insulating layer of the earths
semi-diurnal variations of the barometric pressure. These variations
with maxima at 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. have their cause in the semi-diurnal
changes of the charge of the ionosphere at the same hours, 10 a.m.
and 10 p.m. The barometric pressure reflects the degree of attraction
exerted by the ground and the ionosphere on the gaseous envelope.
defiance of gravity by water and cloud building. The ground
and the ionosphere induce secondary charge-layers in the atmosphere.
In such a secondary layer cloud-building takes place. Generation
of electricity in clouds is due not to the friction of neutral clouds
on mountain ridges, or to the friction of neutral clouds among themselves,
or to the friction of droplets by the gravitational pull on them,
but to the fact that droplets rise already charged toward the charged
layer of the atmosphere, and clouds are further subjected to induction
by the ground and the ionosphere. This explains also the segregation
of the charges in the upper and lower levels of the clouds.
of gravity experienced in the cumulo-nimbus clouds. This defiance
recorded by airplane pilots is the result of charges and electromagnetic
effects prevailing in these clouds.
direction of the cyclonic and anticyclonic whirls. Their direction
on the earth, as well as on the sun, depends on the electromagnetic
fields and not on the rotation of these bodies.
gravity over the sea. The increase of gravity over the sea
as compared with that over the continent may be explained by the
higher charge of salt water.
* * *
a few attempts made to unite the electromagnetic and gravitational field
theories; but as far as I know nobody has tried to solve the problem
of planetary movement around the sun as a motion of charged bodies in
a magnetic field; my explanation implies that the measurement of the
solar magnetic field by Hale is not correct.
sun has a sufficiently strong magnetic field so as to reach the farthest
of the planets, the quantitative elements are dictated by the charge
of the sun, the strength of its magnetic field, and the charge of the
* * *
of the Cosmos without Gravitation given here in synopsis is written
also in a comprehensive form (1941-43). I arrived at this concept early
in 1941 as a result of my research in the history of cosmic upheavals
as they affected the earth and other members of the solar system. A
number of facts proved to me that the sun, the earth and other planets,
the satellites, and the comets, are charged bodies, that the planets
and their satellites have changed their orbits repeatedly and radically,
and that gravitational attraction or the weight of objects has changed
during human history. I thus recognized the fact that not gravitation,
but electric attraction and repulsion and electromagnetic circumduction
govern the solar system.
the electromagnetic theory of the solar system, I am indebted to Miss
Shulamith Velikovsky for valuable suggestions on the dipole explanation
of attraction between the atoms and the dipole concept of inertia.
usual term rotation may be misleading, as it is the
phenomenon of planetary revolution, not rotation, to which it
is here referred.
Hulburt in Flemings Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity,
Humphreys, Physics of the Air, 1940, p.227
Britannica, 14th edition, Atmosphere
Sir James H. Jeans, The Kinetic Energy of Gases, 1940
Humphreys, op.cit., p.240. Lord Rayleigh is quoted from
the Philos. Mag., May 29, 1890.
the attraction of the Himalaya Mountains, by J.H. Pratt, Philos.
Transactions of the R. Soc. of London, vol.145, London 1855.
the computation of the effect of the attraction of mountain-masses,
Bowle, Isostasy in Physics of the Earth,
vol.2, ed. by B. Gutenberg.
Meinesz; see Fleming, Terrestrial Magnetism, p.33.
Navy-Princeton Gravity Expedition to the West Indies in 1932.
Berget, Paris C.R. 116 (1893), pp.1501-3
John and H. Babcock, Pressure and Circulation in the Reversing
Layer of the Suns Atmosphere. Contribution of Mount
Wilson Observatory, 278, 1924.
A. Unsold, On the Physical Interpretation of Spectro-heliogram,
Contr. M. Wilson Obs. 378, 1929.
Lebedew, An Experimental Investigation of the Pressure of
Light, Ann. Rep. of the Smithson. Inst. 1903, John Cox, Comets
Tails, the Corona, and the Aurora Borealis, ibid.
Ch. L. Poor, Gravitation versus Relativity, 1922, p.98.
P. Duhem, La Théorie Physique, 2nd ed., 1914,
Zenneck, Gravitation in Encyclop. der Mathem.
Wiss., vol. V, part I p.44.
Philos. Mag., Feb. 19, 1918.
Newcomb, Monthly Notices, R.A.S., January 1909.
Stetson, Earth, Radio, and Stars, 1934, p.202.
Herschel, Outlines of Astronomy, p.406.
Zenneck, Gravitation, p.36.
The Upper Atmosphere, p.492.
Bigelow, Circulation and Radiation in the Atmosphere of the
Earth and the Sun, 1915, p.42.
Olivier, Meteors, p.129.
ancients assumed that the flame is not attracted to the ground.
No experiment is known where this assertion had been subjected
to experimental verification.
enough, the movements of the electrons around the nucleus are
ascribed to the electrical attraction between these bodies plus
an infinitesimal gravitational attraction and to the inertia with
which the electrons are trying to overcome these two pulls.
Cherry, Newtons Principa in 1687 and 1937, (1937)
Adams and Leverrier expected to find a planet of the size of Uranus
ca. 1,750,000,000 miles beyond the orbit of Uranus, and
it was found ca. 1,000,000,000 miles beyond Uranus, the
mass of Neptune was overestimated by a factor of three.
Book III, Proposition V, Corr. V
Einstein, Relativity, 11th ed., London, 1936, p.69.
Swann, Science, July 3, 1942.
connection with this, attention should be paid to the following:
When measurements of the earths magnetic field are
used to evaluate the magnetic line-integral around any chosen
area on the earths surface, the result generally differs
from zero. This, according to a fundamental principle of electromagnetism,
is to be taken as evidence that an electric current flows vertically
across the area ... The average current-density is about 10,000
times that of the air-earth current that is derived from atmospheric-electricity
measurements, so that it seems inadmissible to interpret either
this aspect of the earths magnetism or the currents observed
in telegraph-lines of mountain slopes as manifestations of vertical
electrical currents in the atmosphere unless there is involved
here some principle or some mode of electrical transport that
is yet unknown to physics... A problem that may be of fundamental
importance to physical science. O.H. Gish, Atmospheric
electricity in Fleming, op.cit.
The special and the general theory, 11th ed., 1936, p.64
Richardson, The nature of solar hydrogen vortices, Contr.
M. Wilson Sol. Obs. 1941
results of an attempt to detect the general magnetic field of
the sun, Contr. M. Wilson Sol. Obs N. 71, 1913.
Bigelow, Circulation and rotation in the atmosphere of the
earth and of the sun, 1915.
McNish, op. cit.
B. Rowland who criticized the theory of Perry and Ayrton printed
in Proc. Phys. Soc. of London (1879)
Preliminary results, p.3.
sixth and seventh satellites of Jupiter are 7,114,000 and 7,292,000
miles (mean distance) from the planet, and have a direct revolution.
The eighth and ninth satellites, with retrograde revolution, are
14,6000,000 and 14,900,000 miles distant. The farthest satellite
of Saturn, with direct revolution, 2,210,000 miles away from the
planet; the only satellite with retrograde revolution is 8,034,000
miles away from the primary.