The time of the patriarch Abraham witnessed unusual behavior by the planet Jupiter. The fact that Jupiter displayed a burst of activity exactly in the time of Abraham must not appear a coincidence: it was in the times of great global catastrophes, when the world was threatened with destruction, that religious reformers gained prominence and contemporaries looked to a divine man for guidance.(1)
Zedek was the name of Jupiter, and we read that in the days of Abraham the planet underwent some visible changes. Rabbinical sources relate that when Abraham was on an expedition against Cherdlaomer, king of Elam, and his allied kingswho had captured and despoiled Sodom, and taken Abrahams nephew Lot into captivitythe star Zedek illuminated the night, thereby ensuring the expeditions success.(2)
When he returned from his victory over Cherdlaomer and the kings who were allied with him, the book of Genesis relates, the king of Sodom came out to greet him. And Melchizedek, king of Salem, brought out bread and wine; he was priest of the Most High. (3) Abraham ceded to Melchizedek the spoils of the war he had obtained in Syria from Cherdlaomer.
Ancient Salem was a holy place, and Palestine was a holy land from grey antiquity. Thus, in the documents of the Old Kingdom in Egypt, Palestine is named Gods Land (Toneter), or Divine (Holy) Land.(4) Abraham lived at the end of the Old Kingdom in Egypt; and documents from that time already refer to Palestine as Gods Land. But in early times, it was an astral god.
The meaning of the name Melchizedek is Zedek is [My] King. Zedek, as said, is the name of the planet Jupiter, remaining so in the astronomy of the Jews in later ages. In the Talmud Zedek refers to Jupiter.(5) Zedek also has the meaning of righteousness or justice. It is beyond the scope of this work to find which of the meaningsthe name of the planet or a word in common usagepreceded and which followed. It is conceivable that this planet was worshipped in that remote time and that, in the days of the patriarch Abraham, the cult of Jupiter was prominent in the Salem of the high priest Melchizedek. Melchizedek, priest of the most high, was, it follows, a worshipper of Jupiter(6).